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Joachim Philip – one of Julian Fedon most trusted lieutenants, and one of many Grenadian who sacrificed all the privileges enjoyed as mixed race 'adopted subjects'. Not much or anything that I can find, has been written about him as a family man. After all, the Fedon struggle was about attempts at preservation of our French and African identity that was uniquely becoming ours after one hundred and fifty years together.
Based on details in his Will written and published in 1773, Page 1, Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5, Page 6, the father of Joachim, Honore Philip Sr., listed his assets and the beneficiaries in details. His African companion (common law wife) and mother of his children was a free African woman who bore him ten children. A nephew named François Philip, his mother and three brothers were also mentioned. But nothing about the wives or husbands of his children. So I went on the search to find out if Joachim was married and to whom. I found an indenture made on September 10th, 1785 between the Philip siblings and finally his wife was listed as a Jeanne Rose D’Arcueil. I have seen the surname D'Arcueil in other documents on the Fedon insurrection that involved one very determined resistor named Clozier D'Arcueil. Clozier D'Arcueil is one of the most underrepresented fighter in the study of the Fedon insurrection. An old man with Values as solid as a Gouyave Rock.
So I wanted to know more. I started searching for any information linking D’Arcueil and the Philips. First I found a marriage agreement – in French of course, Page.1, Page.2, Page.3, Page.4, done in 1785 for Joachim Philip and a Jeanne Rose D’Arcueil, residents of Gouyave Saint John. Just what I wanted. It was elaborate and listed names that I would eventually learn were part of the established French/African nationals who were involved in forming our new national identity – My old debate, - ‘Toward a Creole Myth of Origin’. In this marriage agreement there was Madam Rozalie - negresse libre (Free black woman), the mother of Jeanne Rose D’Arcueil, and none other than the proud La Grenade nationalist, Monsieur Clozier D'Arcueil, her father. Monsieur Clozier D'Arcueil was from one of La Grenade oldest French families, a son of Francois Clozier de Beaulieu Born in 1716 in the French Quarters, and hung in the market square at age 80 by the British in 1796. François Philip, Joachim’s first cousin – often referred in Internet documents as an uncle, and who was well known for his defense of Slaves, was also in attendance as a participant in the agreement signing. The other Clozier brothers Clozier-Chantamel, Clozier- DeCoteaux, Clozier-Papin, Clozier-St Marie, and other cousins were there too.
When the insurrection was finally suppressed in 1796, Joachim used this extended family connections of the Clozier family who were big estate owners in the parish of St. Patrick’s, St Mark, St John, and nearly every other parish, to avoid capture of a vengeful British, and eventually escaped to his family island of Petite Martinique, which his father Honore Philip Sr. purchased in 1773 with a big chunk of the Island of Carriacou Page 1, Page 2, Page 3 from Jérémie Camusat de Sainte-Croix. He kept a low profile there until he was betrayed and captured by a loyal British slave Militia and returned to St George’s where he was hung in the market square like his father-in-law before him in 1803.
No one has really bothered to find out what ever happened to the wife and children of Joachim Philip as far as I can tell. I suspect they were banished to Trinidad or another French island as were most of the women and children of the insurgents. But I want to know and I think we all should want to know. The father of the Clozier brothers Francois Clozier de Beaulieu, shows up in Grenada French records as early as 1717 as a judge for the king of France. Based on what is said in those records, he was a very adventurous man who ran into trouble with the King and other local French merchants competing for business in the colonies. What I don't totally understand as yet, is why nearly all of his children born in Grenada had the name Clozier followed by some other surname that was not de Beaulieu. Is this an old French naming thing? Did they all have diffrent mothers? As far as I can tell, Clozier D'Arceuil's full name was Charles Francois Clozier D'Arceuil. His siblings were: Genevisie Catherine Berthelin Clozier, Louis Francois Clozier Chantemel (Clozier Chantemel), Louis Francois Clozier DeCoteaux (Clozier DeCoteaux), Philip Charles Clozier DeCoteaux, L. J.G. Clozier Papin, Clozier St Marie, and Francois Charles Marie Clozier. And there could be more. And we all know that there are villages today which took their names. Like Clozier in many parishes and even in Carriacou and Chantemel in St Patrick. All these Clozier men had freed African common law wives and mixed race children. This explains why the surname DeCoteaux is so plentiful on the British list of rebels that were executed. The entire Clozier family participated in the struggle. Many ended up on the list of executed rebels and others left the island never to return. What remained of them in La Grenade, became obedient British Subjects who went along to be educated in Great Britain and many were later grateful recipients of the honor of the British Empire!
An index for all the entries for the digitalized images on the Francois Clozier de Beaulieu can be access here starting from page 110 - 125 for La Grenade:
To be continued.....
Thank you Peter St. Paul for the scans of historical documents.
The Clozier family gained notoriety for having children with their female slaves, not that other white planters weren't doing it but the amount the Clozier (white) brothers fathered was scandalous. They were closely related to other plantation families of French origin such as Passee, Dafaur and Dumont.
It appeared that some French families gave their sons differed surnames
look at Sir Pierre Francois Laurent and his brother Jean Francois Laurent-Haurealt or, Louis Lejeune and his brother Louis Julien Lejeune-Dugue.
Chantimelle in St. Patrick is named after Louis Francois Clozier de Chantimelle -he owned Chantimelle Estate.
Francois Charles Marie Clozier de St. Marie was the son of Philippe Charles Clozier and nephew of Charles Francois Clozier D'arcueil.
Could you email me please.
Kevin, I will email you.
One difficulty I have been facing looking at these old documents is piecing together relationships with names. Since there is no INDEX in most of these old achieved records that are publicly available, one has to go over troves of every available record to get to the correct bottom of who is who. And to me, that is very important to clearly understand the relationships which tells the story of the development of our history.
From what I have seen so far, the Clozier family started with François Clozier de Beaulieu who shows up in 1717 - the earliest record that I have seen. He was a very interesting character based on some of the incidents in the records. As a judge appointed by the King and competing with other noted French men in the Islands, he was even accused of “embezzling” funds from the scandalous King. But that did not happened. He survived to produce many children in Grenada who became this huge Clozier clan. What made it more confusing to me – since I saw no prior record of who is who of Clozier de Beaulieu’s children, is the French naming scheme where Clozier was followed by some other family name and NOT de Beaulieu as we are accustomed with in the British system. Neither “dit” nor “de” was used. So the only way to join all these names to relationships, were to find land deeds, wills, and any other documents that mentions relationships. And by doing so, other interesting sides of stories popped up. And since most of these individuals were well known in Grenada at that time, the written legal records would use short version of their full names which can add to the confusion… if there is no other published documents to verify these names. The Clozier brothers owned many estates. The most noted were Duquesne, Bon Air, and Grosse Pointe.
Attempts are made here to tag the estates in some form of interactive map of Grenada based on the - ‘Topographical Description of the Island of Grenada,’ 1780 by DANIEL PATERSON.
The Early Records of François Clozier de Beaulieu in the online French archives can by seen here:
Beginning in 1717 in Grenada:
5 January 1718 - Procédure contre le sieur Clozier, procureur du roi à la Grenade, accusé de malversation. (Proceedings against Mr. Clozier, attorney of the King in Grenada, accused of embezzlement.)
19 janvier 1721 - Requête concernant le sieur François Clozier de Beaulieu, ancien procureur de la Grenade. (19 January 1721 - Application concerning Mr François Clozier de Beaulieu, former Prosecutor of Grenada.)
17 September 1729 - Lettres d'abolition en faveur du sieur Clozier, lieutenant de juge à la Grenade.(Letters of abolition in favor of Mr. Clozier, lieutenant judge in Grenada.)
François Clozier de Beaulieu
- Genevisie Catherine Berthelin Clozier
- Louise Therese Genevisie Clozier
- Philip Charles Clozier
- Louis Philip Charles Clozier DeCoteaux
- Louis François Clozier DeCoteaux
- Louis François Clozier Chantemel
- Louis J.G. Clozier Papin
- Louis Charles François Clozier D'Arceuil
- Clozier Saint Marie
- François Charles Marie Clozier
- Jean Leandre Clozier
- Jean François Medard D'Arceuil
- Louis François Medard D'Arceuil
1751 Philippe Charles Clozier
1765 Clozier family
1765 Clozier Papin, Berthelin,Decoteaux and Chantemel
1774 Francois Clozier Decoteaux and Colzier D'arceuil
1780 Philippe Charles Clozier commander of Grand Pauvre
1784 Jean Francois Medard D'arceuil - brother of Jeanne Roze D'arceuil
1784 Jeanne rose D'arcuil,Philip Charles Clozier,Charles Chantemel
1787 - Decoteaux, D'arceuil and Chantemel
1787 Charles Francois Clozier D'arceuil now living in St John
1788 Clozier de Saint Marie
1789 Clozier D'arceuil,Clozier DeCoteaux of St Patricks
1790 Joachim Philip and Clozier D'arceiul of St John
1794 Clozier Chantemel and D'arceuil
1794 Clozier D'arceuil and Jean Leandre clozier
1794 Clozier D'arceuil and Philip Charles Clozier
1794 D'arceuil C. F. Clozier
1794 francois charles Marie Clozier
1794 philip charles clozier
1796 Alerander Clozier, St Jean Clozier, Medarde D'Arceuil Estate taken by the Crown
1796 Bonair estate of F.C.M.Clozier
1796 Estate of Clozier D'arcuil called Duquesne
1796 estate of Colzier D'arceuil called Grosse Pointe
1796 estate of jean (john) C. Clozier in st john
1796 Medard Chantemel
1797 estates of Clozier D'arceuil named Grosse Pointe and Duquesne
1797 Francis Liburat Clozier
1811 Clozier and Papen
1811 interesting doc on children of Clozier
1811 interesting doc on the Clozier family lands
charles francois Clozier D'arceuil - st marks
Clozier D'arceiul, clozier Decoteaux and Brigite Fedon, mother of Julian Fedon
Chantemels and DeCoteaux Guards who did the shooting